West Virginia State Fruit: Golden Delicious Apple (2023)

The Golden Delicious apple, (Malus pumila,) was designated as the official State Fruit by Senate Concurrent Resolution No. 7, adopted by the Legislature on February 20, 1995. This apple variety was discovered by Anderson Mullins in Clay County, West Virginia, in 1905. The plain apple had been previously designated as the official State Fruit by House Concurrent Resolution No. 56, adopted March 7, 1972.

Apples are members of the rose family, or Rosaceae, and the genus Malus. The common wild apple of Europe and Asia is Malus pumila. Other wild species are Malus sylvestris (a wild crab apple), and Malus baccata. Cultivated apples are also called Malus pumila, though they may also be descended from one or more of the other wild species.

The alternate, simple, toothed leaves of Apple are variable in size and shape. Mature Apple trees often have extensive development of spur branches, although they are frequently lacking on and fast growing young branches at the outer edge of the canopy, and on young plants. The dense, almost wooly hairs on the buds can be a helpful character to confirm the identity of Apple. Bark of mature trunks tends to have a smooth inner layer with a subtle reddish hue, and peeling sections of an outer grayish layer. Bark of young branches is often smooth and much different in appearance then the bark of mature trunks. The growth form of Apple trees (even escapes) grown in full sun is distinctive and familiar to many people. The trunk divides low into several major branches and the canopy is typically as wide or wider than tall. Escapes developing under (with) forest canopy are usually taller and less spreading of form and may require closer examination.

The Greatest Apple in the World

West Virginia State Fruit: Golden Delicious Apple (1)

"Eureka! I found it!" Those were the words of Paul Stark of Stark Brothers Nursery when he bit into a new and exciting apple in 1914.

He found that special apple on a thousand-mile treasure hunt which started in the town of Louisiana, Missouri, the home of Stark Brothers, and ended on a hillside in Clay County, West Virginia. The apple, later to be called the Golden Delicious, has become our state's most famous contribution to horticulture.

Truly there was gold found in the hills of West Virginia on that special day. The offspring of the original Golden Delicious tree have dropped wealth in every area of the United States and on every continent of the world. Over the years the Golden Delicious has become a standard in commercial and backyard orchards. There is a piece of West Virginia in all parts of the world, due to the popularity of this apple found as a chance seedling on a small farm in Clay County.

No one, at the time the Golden Delicious was discovered, had ever set eyes on such an apple. Red apples dominated at the turn of the century. The new tree soon changed that. It bore huge yellow apples. And yes, they were delicious. "With one in your hand, you can't be sure whether you're drinking champagne or eating an apple," Stark enthused.

Others were similarly impressed. Dr. John Harvey Kellogg, founder of the Kellogg's breakfast food company, wrote in a letter to Stark Nurseries, "I consider the Golden Delicious the finest apple I have ever tasted." Kellogg, an ardent health food proponent, was preparing to plant an orchard on his property.

Luther Burbank concurred. "After observing the Golden Delicious in my experiment grounds and giving it careful tests, I have no hesitancy in stating that it is the greatest apple in all the world," the legendary plant breeder reported.

(Video) Golden Delicious Apple from West Virginia

Paul Stark set out to find the tree in the fall of 1914, the next bearing season after he first tasted a sample of the fruit. What he later called the "trail of the Golden Delicious Apple" ended at the small hamlet of Odessa, several miles south of the Elk River, near the Clay - Kanawha line.

Bewel Mullins had previously owned the Odessa farm, 36 acres located on a hill by Porter Creek. Mullins and his wife Nancy and three children lived there. "My father was a farmer and cattle driver in the area. He would herd cattle to market and to other farms," remembered Roberta Mullins McQuain, Bewel's daughter who now lives in Charleston.

Bewel is the West Virginian who came to be most closely associated with the Golden Delicious tree, but he didn't occupy the farm at the time of the grand discovery. Anderson Mullins, (Bewel's brother) became the tenant of the former Bewel Mullins farm and he was a true apple lover. For several years Anderson had bought his apple stock from Stark Brothers Nursery. At that time, Stark was the major commercial mail-order company for fruit trees, known throughout the country by its advertising.

Anderson Mullins was alive and active in the early years of the 20th century. It was the fall of 1905 when he first noticed a bumper crop of yellow apples burdening a tree he knew hadn't been planted in the home orchard and which must have grown from seed. For the next nine years he marveled at the mysterious tree's ability to produce when other trees didn't. Also remarkable was the apple's ability to keep fresh and crisp in storage until late spring.

Anderson Mullins knew he had something special. Figuring that his favorite nursery might be interested, he proceeded to send Stark Brothers samples of the fruit of his "Mullins Yellow Seedling." "Anderson sent us three apples and a modest letter explaining its characteristics," according to Paul Stark, Jr.

Because of the Starks' love of red apples and the fact that yellow apples had never been best sellers, Paul Stark, Sr., wasn't especially optimistic when the West Virginia fruit arrived in Missouri. But when the Clay County apples were sliced Paul and his brother Lloyd couldn't believe their taste buds. "We had never experienced such a spicy flavor before, especially from a yellow apple," Paul Stark afterwards reported.

So Anderson Mullins definitely got the attention of Stark Brothers Nursery with his three apples. In a 1964 article titled "The Golden Apple" Paul Stark, Jr., wrote of what happened next: "There was only one way to get from Louisiana, Missouri, to West Virginia and that was by railroad and horse and Buggy. For a thousand miles, Paul Stark, Sr., traveled by rail. The final 25 miles was on horseback to a point on Porter's Creek called Odessa."

"When he arrived at the Anderson Mullins farm, he knocked on the cabin door, but nobody answered. He then decided to look around, going up on the hill behind the cabin where a small orchard was planted."

Let's pick up the story now in the words of Paul, Sr., as quoted in a company catalog: "There, looming forth in the midst of small leafless barren trees, was one tree with rich green foliage as if it had been transplanted from the Garden of Eden. That tree's boughs were bending to the ground beneath a tremendous crop of great, glorious, glowing golden apples."

"I started for it on the run, a fear bothered me. Suppose it's just a Grimes Golden apple after all. I came closer and saw the apples were 50 percent larger than Grimes Golden. I picked one and bit into its crisp, tender, juice-laden flesh. Eureka! I had found it!"

(Video) Golden Delicious Apples | Bite Size

A mountain farmer appeared just as the Missourian was enjoying his apple. Stark identified himself, saying, "That's some apple."

"Name's Mullins," the man said, "I sent you some."

After meeting in the orchard, Paul Stark and Anderson Mullins sat down to make their business arrangements. Taking no chances, Stark ordered the tree enclosed before he returned to Missouri.

"Several accounts exist as to what Anderson Mullins got for his special tree," retired Clay County Extension Agent Paul Allen recently told me. "The general consensus was that he was paid at least $5,000." Some members of the Mullins family recall that the tree was actually rented for $5,000 and then purchased for an additional $5,000.

When Stark left the Mullins farm that historic day in 1914, he took with him a bundle of scion wood to graft to his apple trees back in Missouri. It was only two years after the grafts were complete and had produced a crop of yellow apples that he gave his new apple the name "Golden Delicious." No doubt he hoped to capitalize on the comparison to the popular Red Delicious, another Stark apple.

Shortly after Anderson sold the rights to the Golden Delicious apple to Stark Brothers Nursery, Bewel and Anderson Mullins agreed to swap farms. It was Bewel who was paid by Stark Brothers to maintain the original Golden Delicious for the next 30 years.

For protection against thieves, Stark had had a 30 by 30-foot cage constructed out of wood and woven wire that completely engulfed the tree. "Dad had an electric alarm on the cage to detect intruders," Mrs. McQuain recalled. "The alarm wires stretched from the tree's cage behind the house to an alarm in the kitchen."

The 900-square-foot area was bought by Stark Brothers, and the deed still rests in the Clay County Courthouse. Paul Allen figures it was "the most valuable piece of real estate of its size in West Virginia."

The mother tree produced quality apples for nearly 50 years. The seedling had sprouted around the turn of the century, and apparently the old tree had borne its last apple and died by the late 1950's.

Paul Allen corroborates that approximate date. He remembers November 6, 1958, when he and WVU professors Joseph Barrat and David Quinn scaled the hillside behind the old Mullins home. They were in search of any remains of the famous Golden Delicious tree. "Hopefully we could find living shoots so that we could propagate directly from the original tree," Paul recently recalled.

(Video) Apple-A-Day Challenge - Day 1: Golden Delicious

"We went through a dilapidated gate supporting a rusty fence. The original tree was there but it showed no signs of life," Paul continued. David Quinn took a few pictures of the dead tree and later sketched its final image in a pen-and-ink drawing.

Nowadays the only evidence that the tree of gold grew up the hill from Porter Creek is an historical marker located on Route 1 nearby. But the old tree did its job in bringing one of the great, good things into the world. And even though the original stands no more, one only has to visit the nearest supermarket to get a delicious reminder of the famous apple born in Clay County.

Each fall, Clay County celebrates its famous apple with the annual Clay County Golden Delicious Festival. The first festival, in 1973, featured country-and-western star Tex Ritter as the grand marshal. That first year the "world's largest apple pie" was baked, measuring a whopping six feet across and filled with spicy, juicy Golden Delicious apples.

The above is a condensation of an article entitled "The Greatest Apple in the World": Striking Gold in the Clay County Hills, that appeared in the Fall 1995 issue of Gold Seal magazine published by the Division of Culture and History of the State of West Virginia. The article was written by John L. Marra.

As a concurrent resolution, it was required that Senate Concurrent Resolution No. 7 be approved in both houses of the West Virginia Legislature. Senate Concurrent Resolution No. 7 was approved in the Senate on February 16, 1995 and in the House of Delegates on February 20, 1995.

West Virginia SENATE CONCURRENT RESOLUTION NO. 7

(By Senators Jackson, Love, Schoonover, Helmick, Blatnik and Sharpe)

Designating the golden delicious apple as the official state fruit.

Whereas, The golden delicious apple was discovered by Anderson Mullins in Clay County in 1905; and

(Video) Golden Delicious Apple being harvested

Whereas, By 1921, the golden delicious apple became the leading variety of apple tree in the United States and abroad; and

Whereas, Close to two hundred billion pounds of golden delicious apples are grown annually in the United States; and

Whereas, The golden delicious apple has been planted in every continent in the world; and

Whereas, The golden delicious apple is an apple variety native to West Virginia and the plain apple is presently designated as the state fruit; therefore, be it

Resolved by the Legislature of West Virginia:

That the golden delicious apple is hereby designated as the official state fruit; and, be it

Further Resolved, That the Clerk of the Senate is hereby requested to forward a copy of this resolution to Guyan Valley Junior High School.

Because the golden delicious apple was designated by Senate Concurrent Resolution, it is not listed in the West Virginia Code.

Kingdom: Plantae - Plants
Subkingdom: Tracheobionta - Vascular plants
Superdivision: Spermatophyta - Seed plants
Division: Magnoliophyta - Flowering plants
Class: Magnoliopsida - Dicotyledons
Subclass: Rosidae
Order: Rosales
Family: Rosaceae - Rose family
Genus: Malus Mill. - apple
Species: Malus pumila P. Mill. - paradise apple

FAQs

What apple is comparable to Golden Delicious? ›

If you don't have Golden Delicious apples around, substitute a similar sweet and firm-fleshed apple. Jonagold, Gala, Pink Lady, and Fuji varieties all work as substitutes in cooking and baking recipes. However, no other variety quite matches the spicy sweetness of a ripe Golden Delicious.

When did the Golden Delicious apple become the official fruit of the state of West Virginia? ›

On February 20, 1995, the Golden Delicious apple was officially named the state fruit of West Virginia. It's one of two popular apples that originated in the Mountain State. The first was the Grimes Golden, discovered in the early 1800s on the Brooke County farm of Thomas Grimes.

Why are Golden Delicious apples so hard to find? ›

Too many attempts at re-hybridizing it with other varieties are weakening its genetic heritage. Agricultural expansion is razing the untamed land the apple thrived on. Animals picking at the fruit are leaving the trees barren. And of course, there's the ever-looming threat of becoming another climate casualty.

What's the difference between Granny Smith and Golden Delicious? ›

Golden Delicious: This apple has a yellow/green skin with soft flesh and a sweet, mellow flavor that is perfect for snacking; they're also good for applesauce. Cut apples take longer than many varieties to turn brown. Granny Smith: The crisp, firm flesh and tart flavor make these an ideal pie apple.

What is the tastiest apple in the world? ›

Some of the best tasting apple varieties are Honeycrisp, Pink Lady, Fuji, Ambrosia, and Cox's Orange Pippin. These varieties are most flavorful when picked at peak ripeness and eaten within a few months of harvest.

Which apple is the healthiest? ›

Red Delicious

According to the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, certain compounds (polyphenolic) found in apples may play a big role in human health. Studies show that Red Delicious apples are higher in these compounds than many other types and the vast majority of nutrition lies in the skin of the apple.

What month are Golden Delicious apples ready to pick? ›

Yields ripe fruit typically from mid-September to mid-October. The fruit will keep for up to 3–6 months if refrigerated.

What is the sweetest apple ever? ›

If you think about the apples that you can find frequently at a grocery store, the top sweet apple is Fuji. The sugar levels in a Fuji apple range from 15-18 on average (remember, an apple is mostly made up of water).

Can you eat Golden Delicious apples? ›

Golden Delicious apples also have the necessary acid content and stability for baking. They can be baked into crisps, crumbles, tarts, cakes, galettes, and breads. Apple slices may also be cooked down into preserves and butters, or pureed into sauces and soups.

What is the sweetest and crispiest apple? ›

The sweetest apple that is widely available in grocery stores is Fuji. Fuji apples tend to vary in color, from yellow to green to red. Fuji apples are particularly high in natural sugars and have naturally low levels of acidity, letting the natural sugars take center stage.

Where do Golden Delicious apples grow best? ›

Growing tips

'Golden Delicious' apple trees grow best in full-sun. With moist, chalky and humus-rich soil, you are almost guaranteed a high yield. However, 'Golden Delicious' is not tolerant to frost.

What apple is better than Honeycrisp? ›

1. CrimsonCrisp. Billed as a better version of Honeycrisp, the CrimsonCrisp has roots in Golden Delicious, Red Rome, and Jonathan apples, among others.

Can dogs eat apples? ›

Yes, dogs can eat apples. Apples are an excellent source of vitamins A and C, as well as fiber for your dog. They are low in protein and fat, making them the perfect snack for senior dogs. Just be sure to remove the seeds and core first.

Are Golden Delicious good for eating? ›

Appearance and flavor

'Golden Delicious' is a large, yellowish-green skinned cultivar and very sweet to the taste. It is prone to bruising and shriveling, so it needs careful handling and storage. It is a favorite for salads, apple sauce, and apple butter.

What is America's favorite apples? ›

#1 Gala. With its mild, sweet and juicy flesh, the Gala is currently the favorite American apple according to the U.S. Apple Association. Galas were introduced to the United States in the 1970s and are a cross between Kidd's Orange Red and Golden Delicious apples.

How long do apples last in the fridge? ›

The best way to keep apples fresh and ready to eat is to store them unwashed, in whole form, and individually wrapped in the refrigerator. This can keep them fresh for up to 6–8 weeks.

How many calories should a 74 year old woman eat? ›

Consume about 2,600 calories a day if you are active. A female older than 70 years should eat between 1,600 to 2,000 calories daily if you are a sedentary to active.

Which apple has the most sugar? ›

The Golden Delicious apple has the second highest level of sugar content per cup, followed by the Gala apple, the Red Delicious apple, and finally the Fuji apple, which has the highest level of sugar content at 12.73 grams.

Is an apple better than a banana? ›

Apples contain slightly more fiber than bananas, a nutrient that supports gut health and promotes satiety. The skin contains most of that fiber, which is why it's beneficial to eat apples as they're found in nature rather than peeling them.

How do you ripen Golden Delicious apples? ›

Keep your apples cool - between 30 and 40 degrees F. Better still, use a vegetable/fruit drawer in the refrigerator and set the humidity level of the drawer to high.

How do you know when apples are ripe enough to pick? ›

How can you tell when ready? You know when an apple is ready to pick when you cup it in your hand and give it a slight twist, and it comes off in your hand. If you need to give the fruit a yank, or it leaves its stalk behind, or even a bunch of leaves, it is definitely not ready!

Do apples continue to ripen after picking? ›

To make sure the apples can survive long-term storage, the orchards harvest them 1-2 weeks before peak ripeness. Apples are a “climacteric” fruit, meaning that they continue to ripen somewhat after picking. If you have to pick early, try storing the fruit for a while to see if they become sweeter before use.

What is the crunchiest apple? ›

SweeTango – SweeTango apples naturally have larger cells giving them an extraordinary crunch and perfect fracture, in fact, it won the Guinness World Record for the World's loudest crunch ever!

What apples taste like Pink Lady? ›

The Cripps Red is sold as the Sundowner apple and is very similar to the Pink Lady in taste and texture. Both varieties can be substituted for each other in baking.

What is the most juicy apple? ›

Fuji. Due to their low acidity, these ultra-sweet, crispy and juicy apples are a go-to choice for snacking and baking, as well as homemade baby food or apple butters.

Should Golden Delicious apples be refrigerated? ›

They prefer the refrigeration. Apples keep longest when held at 31-36 degrees Fahrenheit. So, you want to keep them in the coolest part of the refrigerator.

What effects do Golden Apples give you? ›

What Are Golden Apples and What Do They Do in Minecraft. Unlike regular Apples, Golden Apples can't spawn in trees. They can be crafted and are even more ideal for eating because not only do they heal you. But they also give you effects that'll help you stay alive longer and cure Zombie Villagers.

How long can you store Golden Delicious apples? ›

golden delicious apple in fridge

Apples have a shelf life of about one to two months in the refrigerator if they are stored correctly.

What is the best apple for apple pie? ›

Best Apples for Apple Pie
  • Granny Smith Apples.
  • Honeycrisp.
  • Golden Delicious.
  • Rome.
  • Jonathan or Jonagold Apples.
  • Braeburn.
  • Northern Spy.
  • Apple Varieties.
8 Sept 2017

Which is better Gala or Honeycrisp? ›

Honeycrisp apples are sweeter than Gala apples. They are much juicier and contain a lot of flavors in their large cells. Even though they also have a slightly tart and acidic undertone, their overall flavor is sweeter than that of a Gala apple.

Which apples have the thinnest skin? ›

Like Fujis, Galas are easy to eat uncooked thanks to their thin skin and overall sweetness, making them an ideal fruit for kids. They're also good for cooking. This is one of our favorite types of green apples.

How long do Golden Delicious apples take to grow? ›

With proper watering, a little fertilizer in the spring, and a light pruning in the winter, your growing Golden Delicious apples will start producing fruit within four to six years of planting, or when trees reach about 8 feet (2 m.) in height.

Are Golden Delicious Easy to grow? ›

From a grower's perspective Golden Delicious is an attractive proposition - very easy to grow, heavy crops, and fruit which keeps in storage for a long time after harvest.

What is the difference between Yellow Delicious and Golden Delicious apples? ›

Yellow Delicious = Golden Delicious, and that's that. You may find these yellow-gold apples with their mild, sweet taste sold under either of these names, but they are the same apple.

Which is poor man's apple? ›

Guava plant is considered to the process of the biological activity and medicinal application of guava so thatthe fruit considered as the poor man apple of tropics.

What is a ghost apple? ›

#GhostApples. It's an unusual phenomenon where freezing rain coats rotting apples before they fall, then when the apple turns mushy it eventually slips out and leaves the icy shell still hanging on the tree.

What is the most poisonous apple in the world? ›

It is also called beach apple. A present-day Spanish name is manzanilla de la muerte, "little apple of death". This refers to the fact that manchineel is one of the most toxic trees in the world: the tree has milky-white sap which contains numerous toxins and can cause blistering.

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Is Ginger Gold apple the same as Golden Delicious? ›

Ginger Gold apple. Ginger Gold was discovered as a chance seedling growing near a Golden Delicious orchard in Virginia in the 1960s. The color, shape, and distinctive long stalk all identify it as a relation of Golden Delicious, yet it has a much earlier season - ripening in mid/late August.

Are Red Delicious and Golden Delicious apples the same? ›

Although the names are similar, Red Delicious and Golden Delicious are entirely different varieties. There are a lot of other similarities though: both varieties were discovered in the USA at the end of the 19th century, both need warm climates, both have interesting histories, and both are basically sweet apples.

Is an opal apple the same as a Golden Delicious? ›

What kind of apple is an Opal? Opals are a cross between a Golden Delicious and Topaz. They inherited the best parts of their parent apples: They're sturdy and crisp with just the right amount of tang. Plus, they're disease resistant, which is good for growers.

Is there a difference between yellow and Golden Delicious apples? ›

Yellow Delicious = Golden Delicious, and that's that. You may find these yellow-gold apples with their mild, sweet taste sold under either of these names, but they are the same apple.

Which is the sweetest apple? ›

1. Fuji Apples. The sweetest apple that is widely available in grocery stores is Fuji. Fuji apples tend to vary in color, from yellow to green to red.

Can you eat Golden Delicious apples? ›

Golden Delicious apples also have the necessary acid content and stability for baking. They can be baked into crisps, crumbles, tarts, cakes, galettes, and breads. Apple slices may also be cooked down into preserves and butters, or pureed into sauces and soups.

Are Golden Delicious apples healthy? ›

Aside from polyphenols, Golden Delicious apples are rich in carotenoids, another group of potent antioxidants. They're also a good source of potassium, iron, and zinc.

Can dogs eat apples? ›

Yes, dogs can eat apples. Apples are an excellent source of vitamins A and C, as well as fiber for your dog. They are low in protein and fat, making them the perfect snack for senior dogs. Just be sure to remove the seeds and core first.

Where do Golden Delicious apples grow best? ›

Growing tips

'Golden Delicious' apple trees grow best in full-sun. With moist, chalky and humus-rich soil, you are almost guaranteed a high yield. However, 'Golden Delicious' is not tolerant to frost.

What is Golden Delicious apples good for? ›

The large, golden fruit of the yellow delicious apple tree ripens late, developing a fine, sweet flavor. While they are best known as fresh-eating apples, yellow delicious also work well for pies, applesauce, and preserves. They also store well, keeping 3–6 months if refrigerated.

Are Golden Delicious good for eating? ›

Appearance and flavor

'Golden Delicious' is a large, yellowish-green skinned cultivar and very sweet to the taste. It is prone to bruising and shriveling, so it needs careful handling and storage. It is a favorite for salads, apple sauce, and apple butter.

Do Golden Delicious apples taste like pears? ›

The Golden Delicious tastes very sweet when ripe with comparatively little acidity. In addition to a pronounced anise and cinnamon aroma, it has a ripe, slightly honey and pear-like aroma. The pulp of the Golden Delicious is very fine-structured and rather tender.

Are golden apples worth it? ›

Golden apples are so powerful in PvP not just because of the mixture of strong absorption and regeneration effects. Enchanted golden apples also provide fire resistance, which renders the massively popular Fire Aspect sword enchant completely useless.

Will Golden Delicious apples ripen off the tree? ›

Unlike some fruits, apples continue to ripen long after they are picked off the tree. This ripening (or over-ripening affects the texture not the taste of the fruit. (ie. They won't get sweeter just softer).

Are Golden Delicious apples similar to Granny Smith? ›

The Golden Delicious were sweet but not as crunchy as the Granny Smith. Most people didn't like the soft texture of the Ginger Gold but if they just focused on the flavour they actually preferred the flavour profile of this apple the most.

How big do Golden Delicious apples get? ›

Mature Size
Semi-Dwarf12 - 15' tall x 12 - 15' wide
Dwarf8 - 10' tall x 8 - 10' wide

Videos

1. Lunch Break: Apples Infused With Golden Delicious
(CBS Sacramento)
2. Apples 101 - About Golden Delicious Apples
(Judi in the Kitchen)
3. Weather and the Apple Harvest
(WeatherWorld PSU)
4. WV Grown Homesteading Webinar: Apples Backyard to Bottling
(WV Department of Agriculture)
5. Apples for the Wholesale Market
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6. Extinct Apples and the Golden Age of American Pomology
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