Weekly / October 1, 2021 / 70(39);1385–1386
Arianna Hanchey, MPH1; Amy Schnall, DrPH1; Tesfaye Bayleyegn, MD1; Sumera Jiva, MPH1; Anna Khan, MA1; Vivi Siegel, MPH1; Renée Funk, DVM2; Erik Svendsen, PhD1 (View author affiliations)
View suggested citation
Views equals page views plus PDF downloads
- PDF pdf icon[86K]
On August 29, 2021, Hurricane Ida made landfall near Port Fourchon, Louisiana, as a Category 4 hurricane with sustained winds of 150 mph, causing life-threatening storm surges, wind damage, heavy rainfall, and power outages that affected approximately one million homes and businesses along the U.S. Gulf Coast (1,2). The storm then traveled Northeast as a tropical depression, causing flash flooding, tornadoes, and power outages, before exiting offshore.* During Hurricane Ida’s widespread geographic impact, collection and analysis of timely data were necessary to understand regional differences, such as causes and circumstances of death, and to guide public health messaging to promote action (3). In response to the disaster, CDC’s Epidemiology Surveillance Task Force† (Epi/Surv Task Force) activated media mortality surveillance to track online reports of deaths related to Hurricane Ida using standardized key search terms from an internal standard operating procedure that outlines surveillance protocol. Team members compiled and coded the information from identified sources (e.g., news media articles, press releases, and social media posts) into a database, analyzed the compiled data, and shared results with emergency response leadership and health communicators to provide situational awareness and guide messaging.§
As of September 9, 2021, the media reported 91 deaths caused by Hurricane Ida across nine states, 56 (61.5%) of which occurred in the Northeast (Table). Among 71 (78.0%) decedents with known age, 29 (40.8%) were aged ≥65 years. By cause of death, the majority of deaths (55; 60.4%) occurred by drowning, most (52; 94.5%) of which occurred in the Northeast. Four reported deaths (4.4%) were work-related, either associated with the emergency response (three) or workplace (one). The top three circumstances of death were drowning (34; 37.4%), vehicular (22; 24.2%), and generator- or power outage–related (17; 18.7%). Cause of death is defined as the specific injury or condition that leads to death; circumstance of death is the determination of how the specific injury or condition leads to death. Among the vehicular deaths, 20 (90.9%) were drownings (e.g., submerged vehicles). The date of death was known for 60 (65.9%) reported deaths; among these, 51 (85.0%) were reported within 24 hours of the death and 34 (51.6%) were reported by media within 24 hours of regional storm impact. Hurricane Ida is the fourth most deadly hurricane the Epi/Surv Task Force has tracked in the contiguous United States since 2012; only Hurricane Harvey (2017) resulted in more reported drowning deaths (Supplementary Figure, https://stacks.cdc.gov/view/cdc/110013).
The type of surveillance described in this report can help reveal the diversity in outcomes from the same type of incident and allows CDC to respond quickly to specific public health threats. For example, during Hurricane Laura (2020), messaging focused on carbon monoxide exposures; during Hurricane Florence (2018), the primary concern was driving through floodwaters. During Hurricane Ida, the most recently reported deaths were discovered during wellness checks; therefore, messaging focused on checking on loved ones. Such evidence-based messaging, delivered through multiple channels to reach diverse audiences, is critical to saving lives, minimizing injury, and protecting public health. Leveraging the work of reporters on the ground who provide information about the current situation is important to this effort and facilitates the tracking of circumstances of death and helps target risk communication and messaging.
The findings in this report are subject to at least one limitation. Media reports are not official records and might not reflect all disaster-related deaths. CDC’s Epi/Surv Task Force will continue to work with partners to help improve the accuracy and timeliness of official mortality data sources.
The media represent an immediate resource for timely information during an emergency response (4). CDC’s Epi/Surv Task Force uses media reports of both confirmed and unconfirmed deaths to guide evidence-based public health messaging to help prevent further injury and death.¶ For example, reports of motor-vehicle involved drownings, whether confirmed or not, can help guide geographic targeting and timing for phase-based messages, such as avoiding driving in floodwaters, and can support existing coordination with state and local communicators (5). Continued use of media reports of both confirmed and unconfirmed deaths can guide evidence-based public health messaging to help prevent further injury and death.
Corresponding author: Arianna Hanchey, firstname.lastname@example.org.
All authors have completed and submitted the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors form for disclosure of potential conflicts of interest. No potential conflicts of interest were disclosed.
† This is the formal name for the current Incident Management System for Hurricane Ida as well as previously activated CDC Emergency Operations Center hurricane response surveillance systems. https://www.cdc.gov/nceh/hsb/disaster/surveillance.htm
¶ For emergency response purposes, media reports of deaths show what potential hazards and dangerous behaviors are occurring, which is vital for CDC’s Epi/Surv Task Force’s response-related public health messaging.
- Federal Emergency Management Agency. Federal agencies stand ready to respond for Hurricane Ida response [Press release]. Washington, DC: US Department of Homeland Security, Federal Emergency Management Agency; 2021. https://www.fema.gov/press-release/20210830/federal-agencies-stand-ready-hurricane-ida-responseexternal icon
- The New York Times. New Orleans without power as Hurricane Ida batters Louisiana. The New York Times. August 29, 2021. https://www.nytimes.com/live/2021/08/29/us/hurricane-ida-live-updates-new-orleans-louisianaexternal icon
- Issa A, Ramadugu K, Mulay P, et al. Deaths rlated to Hurricane Irma—Florida, Georgia, and North Carolina, September 4-October 10, 2017. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2018;67:829–32. https://doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6730a5external icon PMID:30070979external icon
- Olayinka OO, Bayleyegn TM, Noe RS, Lewis LS, Arrisi V, Wolkin AF. Evaluation of real-time mortality surveillance based on media reports. Disaster Med Public Health Prep 2017;11:460–6. https://doi.org/10.1017/dmp.2016.170external icon PMID:28031073external icon
- Vanderford M, Nastoff T, Telfer J, Bonzo S. Emergency communication challenges in response to hurricane Katrina: lessons from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. J Appl Commun Res 2007;35:9–25. https://doi.org/10.1080/00909880601065649external icon
Abbreviation: CO = carbon monoxide.
* The Epidemiology Surveillance Task Force scans media reports daily for confirmed and unconfirmed deaths using key search terms according to a standard operating procedure. https://www.cdc.gov/nceh/hsb/disaster/surveillance.htm
† Percentages might not sum to 100% because of rounding.
§ States in the Northeast that were affected by Hurricane Ida.
¶ Cause of death is the specific injury or condition that leads to death.
** Other/unknown includes alligator attack in floodwater and unknown cause of deaths (e.g., insufficient information at the time).
†† Circumstance of death is the determination of how the specific injury or condition leads to death.
Suggested citation for this article: Hanchey A, Schnall A, Bayleyegn T, et al. Notes from the Field: Deaths Related to Hurricane Ida Reported by Media — Nine States, August 29–September 9, 2021. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2021;70:1385–1386. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm7039a3external icon.
MMWR and Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report are service marks of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
Use of trade names and commercial sources is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
References to non-CDC sites on the Internet are provided as a service to MMWR readers and do not constitute or imply endorsement of these organizations or their programs by CDC or the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. CDC is not responsible for the content of pages found at these sites. URL addresses listed in MMWR were current as of the date of publication.
All HTML versions of MMWR articles are generated from final proofs through an automated process. This conversion might result in character translation or format errors in the HTML version. Users are referred to the electronic PDF version (https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr) and/or the original MMWR paper copy for printable versions of official text, figures, and tables.
Questions or messages regarding errors in formatting should be addressed to email@example.com.
The tests of analytical epidemiology are carried out through four major types of research study designs: cross-sectional studies, case-control studies, cohort studies, and controlled clinical trials.What's the leading cause of death in children? ›
|Motor vehicles||2 (4,112)|
|Other injuries||3 (3,879)|
|Congenital disease||4 (3,166)|
- How much?
- Among whom?
- Viral Hepatitis.
- Infectious Disease.
- Measles, Mumps, and Rubella.
- Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD)
- Chronic Sinusitis.
- Whooping Cough or Pertussis.
There are, he argues, seven main uses for the science of epidemiology: in historical study; in 'community diagnosis' or population studies; in the calculation of individual risks; for health services research; as an aid to clinical understanding; in the identification and labelling of disease; and, lastly and ...Is an epidemiologist a doctor? ›
Are epidemiologists considered medical doctors? No. While epidemiologists study and investigate the causes and sources of diseases in much the same way as medical doctors, they're not considered actual physicians. Perhaps the biggest reason why is treatment.What is the biggest killer of children in the UK? ›
Nearly 1,300 young people aged 10 to 19 die each year in the UK. One in three of these deaths are caused by accidents. Accidental injury is the leading cause of death for young people aged 10 to 19. There is a strong link between deprivation and the risk of death throughout childhood.How many kids drown a year? ›
Every year in the U.S., approximately 3,700 people die from unintentional drowning. Nearly 900 of them are children and adolescents ages 0 to 19.How do you prevent death? ›
Things to remember
Being a non-smoker, eating a healthy diet, exercising regularly and limiting alcohol consumption can reduce your risk of many potentially lethal diseases such as heart disease, stroke and cancer.
The difference is that epidemiologists tend to use synonyms for the 5 W's: diagnosis or health event (what), person (who), place (where), time (when), and causes, risk factors, and modes of transmission (why/how).
Epidemiologist want to know what causes disease; how does disease spread; what can prevent disease and/or keep a population mentally, socially, and physically healthy; and what can be done to control disease.What are the 3 main elements of descriptive epidemiology? ›
Descriptive epidemiology covers time, place, and person. Compiling and analyzing data by time, place, and person is desirable for several reasons.How many years does a person live? ›
While most of us can expect to live to around 80, some people defy expectations and live to be over 100. In places such as Okinawa, Japan and Sardinia, Italy, there are many centenarians.What is the leading cause of death in children in 2022? ›
University of Michigan news release, "Firearms now top cause of death among children, adolescents, U-M analysis shows," April 21, 2022. Accessed May 25, 2022. The Johns Hopkins Center for Gun Violence Solutions, "A Year in Review: 2020 Gun Deaths in the United States," April 28, 2022.Who has the most children in the world? ›
The greatest officially recorded number of children born to one mother is 69, to the wife of Feodor Vassilyev (b. 1707–c . 1782), a peasant from Shuya, Russia. In 27 confinements she gave birth to 16 pairs of twins, seven sets of triplets and four sets of quadruplets.What are the 3 types of epidemiology? ›
The three major epidemiologic techniques are descriptive, analytic, and experimental. Although all three can be used in investigating the occurrence of disease, the method used most is descriptive epidemiology.What are the 4 main uses of epidemiology? ›
In the mid-1980s, five major tasks of epidemiology in public health practice were identified: public health surveillance, field investigation, analytic studies, evaluation, and linkages.What are 3 uses of epidemiology? ›
Assessing the community's health. Making decisions about individual patients. Documenting the clinical picture of the illness. Searching for causes to prevent future outbreaks.How much do epidemiologists make in UK? ›
The average epidemiologist salary in the United Kingdom is £43,422 per year or £22.27 per hour. Entry level positions start at £36,979 per year while most experienced workers make up to £72,979 per year.What are 10 possible duties of an epidemiologist? ›
- Analyze data and find conclusions.
- Create a plan of action for potential health crises.
- Create reports detailing potential threats.
- Give presentations to policy makers.
- Communicate with policy makers on public health.
- Manage multiple projects at once.
It may also depend on the education required — while most epidemiologist jobs require a master's degree, some may require doctoral degrees as well. When you consider school, certification and work experience, it may take up to six years or longer to become an epidemiologist.What is the biggest killer of females in the UK? ›
Dementia and Alzheimer's was the biggest killer of women
For women in England and Wales combined, the leading cause of death was dementia and Alzheimer's disease, with more than 41,000 women dying from this cause in 2016. This was almost double the number of men who died as a result of these diseases.
The life expectancy of a female born in England in 2022 is currently projected to be 83 years, an increase of 21 years in life expectancy since the birth of the Queen.How many children are murdered in UK each year? ›
In the last five years there was an average of 58 child deaths by assault or undetermined intent a year in the UK. Children under the age of one are the most likely age group to be killed by another person, followed by 16- to 24-year-olds. Child homicides are most commonly caused by the child's parent or step-parent.What is dry drowning? ›
Secondary drowning or dry drowning occurs when an individual inhales water due to a near drowning or struggle in the water. A person who experiences a drowning “close call” can be out of the water and walking around as if all is normal before signs of dry drowning become apparent.How many people drown a year in UK? ›
On average 400 people drown in the UK each year and a further 200 people take their own lives on our waters.How long after drowning can you be revived? ›
Most people survive near-drowning after 24 hours of the initial incident. Even if a person has been under water for a long time, it may still be possible to resuscitate them. Do not make a judgment call based on time.What is the phobia of death called? ›
Thanatophobia is an intense fear of death or the dying process. While it's natural to feel anxious about death from time to time, thanatophobia is an anxiety disorder that can disrupt every aspect of your life. Don't be afraid to talk to a healthcare provider about your fears.What are the last breaths before death called? ›
As the moment of death comes nearer, breathing usually slows down and becomes irregular. It might stop and then start again or there might be long pauses or stops between breaths . This is known as Cheyne-Stokes breathing. This can last for a short time or long time before breathing finally stops.How long does the brain live after death? ›
An unexpected discovery made by an international team, examining the results of an EEG on an elderly patient, who died suddenly of a heart attack while the test was in progress.
Classify each of the following studies as:
- Observational cohort.
- Observational case-control.
- Observational cross-sectional.
- Not an analytical or epidemiologic study.
The aim of epidemiological data analysis is to determine the distribution and determinants of health-related events (including disease), and use the findings to control diseases and other health problems. Analysis of the distribution of a disease or public health event.How do you measure epidemiological data? ›
The measures used in epidemiology can be divided into three classes: frequency, association, and potential impact. The measures of heath event frequency can be divided into incidence and prevalence. Incidence measures the number of new events or OOIs arising during a set period of time.What are the three major categories of data sources commonly used in epidemiologic investigations? ›
Three major types of epidemiologic studies are cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies (study designs are discussed in more detail in IOM, 2000).What are the 4 important elements of epidemiology? ›
- Study. Epidemiology is a scientific discipline with sound methods of scientific inquiry at its foundation. ...
- Distribution. ...
- Determinants. ...
- Health-related states or events. ...
- Specified populations. ...
- Application. ...
In this page you can discover 10 synonyms, antonyms, idiomatic expressions, and related words for epidemiological, like: epidemiologic, , toxicological, empirical, epidemiology, quantitative, serological, observational, toxicokinetic and neuropathological.What is the weakest study design? ›
As the exposure status/outcome of interest information is collected in a single moment in time, often by surveys, cross-sectional study design cannot provide a cause-effect relationship and is the weakest of the observational designs.What are the 3 epidemiological transitions? ›
Peculiar variations in the pattern, the pace, the determinants and the consequences of population change differentiate three basic models of the epidemiologic transition: the classical or western model, the accelerated model and the contemporary or delayed model.What source of data is most helpful when evaluating death rates? ›
The vital statistics system (including births, deaths, and other reported vital events) is the principal standardized source of health-related data in the United States.What can epidemiology show? ›
Epidemiology is the study of how often diseases occur in different groups of people and why. Epidemiological information is used to plan and evaluate strategies to prevent illness and as a guide to the management of patients in whom disease has already developed.
A commonly used epidemiologic ratio: death-to-case ratio
It is used as a measure of the severity of illness: the death-to-case ratio for rabies is close to 1 (that is, almost everyone who develops rabies dies from it), whereas the death-to-case ratio for the common cold is close to 0.
In the mid-1980s, five major tasks of epidemiology in public health practice were identified: public health surveillance, field investigation, analytic studies, evaluation, and linkages.How do you measure occurrence of a disease? ›
There are two principal measures of occurrence: prevalence and inci- dence. Point prevalence is the proportion of existing cases (old and new) in a population at a single point in time. This measure is called point prevalencea because it refers to a single point in time. It is often referred to simply as prevalence.What are the 3 key elements of epidemiology? ›
A number of models of disease causation have been proposed. Among the simplest of these is the epidemiologic triad or triangle, the traditional model for infectious disease. The triad consists of an external agent, a susceptible host, and an environment that brings the host and agent together.What tools do epidemiologists use? ›
These tools include surveys, surveillance, analysis of programme data, and rapid assessment. Often different tools can provide information about the same health outcome or indicator of interest; however, the types of information provided by different tools may differ.What is the best source of clinical data? ›
MEPS is the most complete source of data on the cost and use of health care and health insurance coverage.